Microscopic denizens are living in your home: DUST MITES

8 mins read

What are dust mites?

Dust mites are microscopic insect-like creatures that live in house dust and household items such as furniture and bedding. Dust mites feed on dead skin cells, fungi, yeasts and bacteria.

Most households contain some species of dust mites, and they are present in approximately 84% of homes in the U.S. Dust mites thrive in warm, moist environments, ideally those with around 70% humidity, and typically live on items that dead skin cells collect on, such as bedding, furniture that contains fabric, curtains, carpets or rugs, mattresses, pillows, cloths, toys with fabric.

Several environmental factors can trigger eczema, including live dust mites, their remains, and their droppings. Now that our weather is getting cooler homes are being closed up and the heat comes on, dust mites may present a larger problem.

Do dust mites cause eczema?

Dust mites do not attach to the skin or pierce it. Their droppings may trigger eczema, but only in people prone to eczema.

Eczema is the name for a group of seven skin conditions that cause patches of skin to become itchy, discolored, and swollen. Some 31 million people living in the United States have eczema.

Most people can reduce symptoms of eczema linked with dust mite exposure by following an eczema treatment plan and taking steps to reduce the number of dust mites and dust mite allergens in their homes and household items.

People can have an allergic reaction to numerous mite allergens. Currently, researchers have identified 24 potential allergens associated with dust mites. 

Many people experience a reaction to dust mites when their skin comes into contact with a dust mite allergen. And, because they are so tiny, dust mites can also be inhaled. Many people inhale dust mite allergens, which can cause an immune response and inflammation or irritation in the nose, throat, or lungs.

Skin barrier damage from dust mites’ allergens can reach lower levels of cells that can spark an immune cascade, resulting in inflammation that can trigger or worsen eczema symptoms in people prone to it. If dust mite allergens damage the skin barrier, it is also less capable of preventing exposure to other allergens.

Other risks of dust mites: Many people who do not have eczema, or are not prone to it, have a house dust allergy and are allergic to dust mite allergens. Symptoms of dust mite allergies tend to occur year-round and worsen while sleeping because of exposure to allergens in bedding, pillows, and mattresses.

Common symptoms of a dust mite allergy include:

nasal congestion, sneezing, sinus inflammation, and a postnasal drip

itchy skin

cough

unexplained exhaustion

trouble sleeping because of wheezing, coughing, or difficulty breathing

The allergens in dust mites can also trigger other allergic conditions, such as:

allergic asthma

allergic rhinitis with only nose symptoms

allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with nose and eye symptoms

sinusitis

increased sensitivity to other allergens and irritants such as pollution, dry air, smoke, and pollen

Treatment

People with eczema can manage exposure to triggers such as dust mites, but they must still seek medical treatment for eczema and use other methods to help prevent it from worsening.

There are many medical treatment options for eczema. Consult with your health practitioner, or a licensed Dermatologist for information about over-the-counter or prescription relief medications.

Preventing dust mite allergies

While there is no way to completely get rid of dust mites, there are several strategies for reducing exposure to them. Tips for reducing dust mites include:

dusting household surfaces as often as possible with a wet mop or damp dusting cloth

vacuuming carpets and rugs several times each week

cleaning furniture, toys, and other household items weekly, paying particular attention to vacuuming the seams where dust mites tend to accumulate

washing bed linens at least twice each week and pillows and duvets every 4–6 weeks in water that is 140°F, and drying items using a tumbling, hot setting in a dryer

using an air purifier that contains a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, especially in bedrooms

vacuuming mattresses thoroughly every few weeks

washing or dry-cleaning cushion covers, curtains, and fabric-containing toys regularly in water that is at least 140°F

choosing furniture in materials that are easier to fully clean, such as leather, vinyl, or wood

switching fabric curtains for plastic roller blinds

changing carpeted flooring to materials that can be easily cleaned, such as wood, linoleum, vinyl, or laminate

allowing good airflow in the home to reduce humidity, or using a dehumidifier to keep humidity levels below 50%

replacing mattresses and pillows when they become old or too hard to clean, and buying washable pillows

using anti-dust mite covers to protect mattresses, pillows, and duvets

keeping items that sit on open shelves such as books inside a cupboard, and keeping toys in a closet or toy box

putting non-washable toys in a plastic bag in the freezer for at least 24 hours, then brushing off potential dust mites

reducing excess items in the home

brushing pets frequently, ideally outdoors

wearing rubber gloves and a face mask while cleaning

if considering new or additional pets, looking into breeds or species that shed less fur and dander

using acaricides short term, which are chemicals that can kill house dust mites

cleaning vacuum filters frequently and using a low-dust exhaust vacuum cleaner

using cotton bed linens

When to contact a doctor

People should talk with a doctor, or a doctor that specializes in skin care called a dermatologist, if they experience unexplained skin symptoms, such as:

itchiness

rash

inflammation

discoloration

oozing or weeping

crusting

redness

roughness

scaling

People with skin conditions such as eczema should also speak with a doctor if their symptoms worsen or do not ease with treatment.

Sources:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/do-dust-mites-cause-eczema

Dust mite allergy. (2015).

http://www.aafa.org/page/dust-mite-allergy.aspx

Dust mite allergy. (n.d.).

http://www.allergyasthmanetwork.org/education/allergies/common-allergens/dust-mites/?gclid=Cj0KEQjwv_fKBRCG8a3ao-OQuZ8BEiQAvpHp6MfqtS019Pb_bfUcT7rF-RLY1sp3hxdkoZtp62s4nHEaAnGN8P8HAQ

Fung, C.-K., & Hon, K.-L. (2015). Complementary and alternative medicine for allergic rhinitis: What is the evidence?

https://hkspra.org/product_image_pub/285_680557.pdf

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